Souvenir card (front and back) from Carl Hagenbeck’s zoo in Hamburg showing the unmarried Labrador Inuit Tobias, one of the Inuit who had been recruited for Hagenbeck’s traveling Völkerschau. Abraham Ulrikab’s diary entry of November 7, 1880, notes that Tobias was beaten with a dog whip by their “master,” Johan Adrian Jacobsen, adding: “If Tobias is frequently as stubborn, he won’t get paid, but if he is nice, he will get greatly paid. After this incident, Tobias was very sick.”

Tobias, One of the Inuit in a Völkerschau in Hamburg (1880)


Source: Kenn Harper Collection. Reprinted in The Diary of Abraham Ulrikab. Text and Context, transl. Hartmut Lutz et al. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2005, p. 28.

Rudolf Virchow, Report from the Special Meeting in the Zoological Garden on November 7, 1880: “Eskimos from Labrador” (1880), published in German History Intersections, https://germanhistory-intersections.org/en/knowledge-and-education/ghis:document-189

Tobias, One of the Inuit in a Völkerschau in Hamburg (1880), published in: German History in Documents and Images, <https://germanhistorydocs.org/en/forging-an-empire-bismarckian-germany-1866-1890/ghdi:image-5111> [December 08, 2023].