The guest-worker recruitment initiative also brought large numbers of female workers to the Federal Republic. At first, most came from Italy, Spain, and Greece; later, female workers also started coming from Turkey and Yugoslavia. By the end of the 1960s, 30% of all foreign guest workers in the Federal Republic were women. They were employed mostly in branches of the manufacturing industry: the clothing and textile industries, the metal and electrical industries, and, as can be seen in this photograph, the food and luxury goods industries. Additionally, many female guest workers held positions in the service sector—restaurant work, nursing, and cleaning were particularly common occupational areas. Photo by Gerd Mingram [Germin].