In December 1970, West Germany and Poland signed the Warsaw Treaty guaranteeing the diplomatic recognition of both states and assuring the inviolability of the Polish-German border (Oder-Neisse line) established by the Potsdam Conference in 1945. The treaty was part of the West German Ostpolitik of “change through rapprochement,” which also aimed to establish closer relations with the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and the GDR. In December of 1970, a group of NPD members formed an autocade in the West German city of Essen to protest the treaty. This led to confrontations with young counter-protestors, whose slogan “Nazis raus” [“Nazis out!”] clearly identifies the National Democratic Party of Germany [Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands or NPD] as a right-wing organization.

Demonstration against the National Democratic Party of Germany in Essen (December 5, 1970)


Source: On December 5, 1970, clashes broke out in Essen during the passage of a car convoy protesting the signing of the Warsaw Treaty. The clashes involved members of the far-right NPD and “Aktion Widerstand,” on the one side, and more than 300 young counter-demonstrators on the other.  December 5, 1970. picture-alliance / dpa | Fritz Reiss. Media no. 2056824.

© picture-alliance / dpa | Fritz Reiss